Office: Scarfe 2330
- Educational Technologies
- Health Education
- Metacognition and Learning
- Non-Formal Learning
- Science Education Research
- Teacher Education Research
- Learning design
- Learner agency
- Self-regulated learning
- Formative assessment
- Immersive learning
- Virtual learning environments
- Virtual augmented and mixed reality for learning
Assistant Professor, Media & Technology Studies Education
Applied Design, Skills, and Technologies
Simon Fraser University, 2010, PhD
University of Alberta, 2002, MEd
University of Alberta, 1999, BEd
Dr. Jillianne Code is a researcher, educator, and learning scientist specializing in learner agency, online learning technologies, and the impact of social media on student success and well-being. As the Director of the ALIVE Research Lab at the University of British Columbia, Dr. Code studies agency ‘unbundled’ from formal education including video games, virtual reality, and social media communities.
Before coming to the University of British Columbia, Jillianne was Associate Professor of Educational Technology and Psychology in the Faculty of Education at the University of Victoria (UVic; 2011-17), and a Post-doctoral Research Fellow at the Harvard Graduate School of Education in Assessment and Learning Technologies (2010-11). Dr. Code holds a Ph.D in Educational Psychology from Simon Fraser University, a M.Ed in Educational Psychology with a specialization in Instructional Technology, and a B.Ed in Secondary Science and Art Education from the University of Alberta.
Dr. Code is also a two-time heart transplant recipient, heart failure survivor, and co-founder of the HeartLife Foundation of Canada whose mission is to engage, educate, and empower the voices of those living with heart failure.
Click here for the Wikipedia entry written about Professor Code.
What I do
Agency and identity development are central tenets of my scholarship and play a key role in shaping my identity as a woman, researcher, and person with a medical disability. I advance my educational and interdisciplinary scholarship by engaging in fundamental questions about: How do we learn? Does technology make a difference? How does technology impact our agency as humans? I explore these questions by examining the nature of human agency across the disciplines of ADST – applied design, skills, and technology; STEM – science technology, engineering, and math; and through the democratization of knowledge in the process. Selected themes of my research include:
Technology and its Applications to Educational Contexts:
- Critical examination of learning environments in ADST & STEM (Code et al., 2020, 2022);
- Democratization of knowledge through social media and technology (Code, 2013);
- Design and validation of virtual environments for assessment (Code & Zap, 2017);
- Public pedagogy and the psychosocial impacts of technology (Code et al., 2021).
Methodological Innovation for Understanding Self-Processes and Agency:
- Through measurement (Code, 2020) and learning analytics (Code, 2021);
- As education through public discourse and knowledge translation (Code, 2019);
- As the object of study using autoethnography (Code, 2019, 2022).
- Code, J. (2022, August). Scientific communication, patient-oriented research, and knowledge mobilization [Peter Pare Lectureship]. In Heart-Lung Institute Research Day, Vancouver, BC.
- Code, J. (2021, March). MAKING a career: How the pandemic has changed STEM education and the jobs of tomorrow [Keynote]. In STEM Enrichment Youth and Education for All Foundation’s World STEM Conference, Online.
- Code, J. & Pike, R. (2017, October). The lived experience of cardiovascular nursing: A patient’s perspective [Keynote]. In Canadian Council for Cardiovascular Nurses Fall Conference, Vancouver, BC.
- Code, J. (2017, June). A patient’s voice [Keynote]. In M. Toma, K. Ramanathan & H. Nazzari (Chairs), UBC Heart Failure Symposium, Vancouver, BC.
- Catlin, B. & Code, J. (2017, May). The evolution of BC’s provincial heart failure strategy: It’s influence on clinical practice and patient care [Keynote]. In Canadian Council for Cardiovascular Nurses Spring Conference, Victoria, BC.
- Code, J. (2021, December). Educating through the lived experience of guideline-directed medical therapy [Plenary]. In N. Hartshorne-Evans & I. Pina (Chairs), New HFrEF guidelines… so what? Is HFrEF therapy becoming too complicated, too expensive? Invited plenary at the 18th Global CVCT Forum, Washington, DC, USA.
- Andersson, T., Bat, S., Code, J., Desvigne-Nickens, P., Ferreira, J., et al., (2021, December). How implementation of HFrEF therapy may be made simpler and affordable? [Panel]. In N. Hartshorne-Evans & I. Pina (Chairs), New HFrEF guidelines… so what? Is HFrEF therapy becoming too complicated, too expensive? Invited Panel at the 18th Global CVCT Forum, Washington, DC, USA.
- Code, J. (2021, December). Implementation science and quality evidence from the lived experience [Plenary]. In G. C. Fonarow & C. O’Connor (Chairs), Should not the future of HFrEF trials rather be implementation trials? Invited plenary at the 18th Global CVCT Forum, Washington, DC, USA.
- Andersson, T., Code, J., Desvigne-Nickens, P., Ferreira, J., Fonarow, G., et al. (2021, December). Moving towards heart failure therapy implementation strategies trials [Panel]. In G. C. Fonarow & C. O’Connor (Chairs), Should not the future of HFrEF trials rather be implementation trials? Invited Panel at the 18th Global CVCT Forum, Washington, DC, USA.
- Code, J. (2021, December). Setting the stage for the lived experience in clinical trial research. [Plenary]. In Code & R. Martinez (Chairs), Patient voice in clinical trials – Going beyond lip service. Invited plenary at the 18th Global CVCT, Washington, DC, USA.
- Adams, B., Alikhaani, J., Alikhaani, S., Chauhan, C., Code, J., et al. (2021, December). The CVCT Forum Multi-Stakeholder Moderated Debate. [Panel, listed alphabetically]. In Code & R. Martinez (Chairs), Patient voice in clinical trials – Going beyond lip service. Invited Panel at the 18th Global CVCT, Washington, DC, USA.
- J. (2021, August). Patient agency in practice. In A. Schnitzbauer & R. Thuraisingham (Chairs), A 360-degree view of risk [Plenary]. ESOT, Milan, Italy. https://www.esotcongress.org/
- J. (2021, August). An education of [real] survival analysis – Learning it’s about life, not failure. In A. Forsberg & T. Berney (Chairs), The end of Kaplan-Meier: New endpoints in transplantation [Plenary]. ESOT, Milan, Italy. https://www.esotcongress.org/
- Code, J., Demers, C., Fogg, G., & Gragossian, A. (2021, April). Rehab, nutrition, medications, apps for HF care for clinicians and patients [Panel]. Heart Failure and Rhythm Summit 2021, McMaster University, Canada.
- Code, J. (2020, June). Democratization of heart failure: Connecting voices from Canada’s other pandemic [Plenary]. In H. Ross (Chair), EMPOWER-HF Virtual Roundtable, Toronto, ON.
- Code, J. & Sloan, J. (2019, December). How to report and critique major trials in cardiology from a statistical perspective, including recent statistical advances – Patient viewpoints [Plenary]. In S. Pocock & J. Gregson (Chairs), CVCT Masterclass. Invited Panel at the 16th Global Cardiovascular Clinical Trialists Forum (CVCT), Washington, DC, USA.
- Code, J. & Gunther, P. (2019, December). The role of mental health studies in cardiovascular trials [Plenary]. In C. Chauhan & D. Janssen (Chairs), Empowering patients to be active participants in clinical trials. Invited Panel at the 16th Global Cardiovascular Clinical Trialists Forum (CVCT), Washington, DC, USA.
- Code, J. & Verbakel, M. (2019, December). Patient-reported outcomes: Why CV prevention trials are critical for patients [Plenary]. In B. Pitt & H. Ventura (Chairs), Diet, hypertension and CV prevention trials. Invited Panel at the 16th Global Cardiovascular Clinical Trialists Forum (CVCT), Washington, DC, USA.
- Code, J. & Ross, H. (2019, October). The heart failure continuum and the lived experience: Perspectives from diagnosis through transplant and beyond [Conference session]. Canadian Cardiovascular Congress, Montreal, QUE. https://www.eventscribe.com/2019/CCS/
- Code, J. et al. (2019, October). Shifting the research to action paradigm: The complex connections among cardiovascular disease, stroke and vascular cognitive impairment [Panel]. Invited Panel at the Heart and Stroke Foundation Spotlight Session at the Canadian Cardiovascular Congress, Montreal, QUE.
- Code, J. (2019, September). Unbundled learning with heart failure [Plenary]. In R. Starling and S. Zieroth (Chairs), Barriers to implementation of new therapies. Invited Panel at the Heart Failure Society of America Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
- Code, J. (2019, March). Patient-led advocacy to support health system transformation and improved heart failure care [Plenary]. In A. Krahn, J. Pineiro & P. Torres (Chairs), Heart failure advocacy and international perspectives. Invited symposium at the American College of Cardiology Annual Meeting (ACC.19), New Orleans, LA, USA.
- Ahmed, C., Chauhan, C., Code, J., Dahlgren, K., Jefferson, N. et al. (2018, December). CV Trial-related questions patients want answered [Panel, listed alphabetically]. In C. Chauhan & A. Lenselink (Chairs), Invited Panel at the 15thGlobal Cardiovascular Clinical Trialists Forum (CVCT), Washington, DC, USA.
- Abraham, W., Alonso, A., Code, J., Clagget, B., Cowie, M., Januzzi, J., Rapezzi, C., & Zeiher, A. (2018, December). Ongoing heart failure trials: Looking into the crystal ball [Panel, listed alphabetically]. In C. Felker & C. O’Connor (Chairs), Invited Panel at the 15th Global Cardiovascular Clinical Trialists Forum (CVCT), Washington, DC, USA.
- Code J. & Virani, S. (2017, October). Heart failure advocacy: Engaging in a three-pronged approach to healthcare transformation from a patient, provider, and systems perspective [Plenary]. Canadian Cardiovascular Society Public Policy Plenary Session at Canadian Cardiovascular Congress, Vancouver, BC.
- Lannon, H., Code, J., Poole, J., Simpson, C. & Badh, V. (2022). Patient and caregiver perspectives of the connection between home and the transplant journey. Heart and Lung, 57, 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrtlng.2022.10.008 (CA)[6 pages]
- Peiris, R., Ross, H., Chan, C., Poon, S., Auguste, B., Rac, V., Farkouh, M., McDonald, M., Kaczorowski, J., Code, J., and others. (2022). Automated digital counselling with social network support as a novel intervention for patients with heart failure: protocol for a randomized controlled trial. BMJ Open,12(9), e059635. https://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-059635 (CA) [9 pages]
- Code, J. (2022). From patient to agent. Journal of Cardiac Failure, 28(7), 1230-1234. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cardfail.2022.04.007 (FA) [4 pages]
- Code, J., Ralph, R. & Forde, K. (2022). A disorienting dilemma: Teaching and learning in technology education during a time of crisis. Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education, 22(1), 170-189. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42330-022-00191-9 (FA) [20 pages]
- Code, J., Zap, N. & Ralph, R. (2021). Academic success online: Mediating the effects of personality and self-efficacy in online learning. International Journal on E-Learning 20(4), 377-410. https://www.learntechlib.org/p/212813/ (FA) [34 pages]
- Ross, E., Sakakibara, B., Mackay, M., Whitehurst, D., Singer, J., Toma, M., Corbett, K., Rutherford, K., Gheorghiu, B., Code, J., & Lear, S. (2021). The use of text messaging to improve the hospital-to-community transition in acute coronary syndrome patients (Txt2Prevent): Results from a pilot randomized controlled trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research (JMIR) uHealth and mHealth, 9(5), e24530. https://doi.org/10.2196/24530 (CA) [17 pages]
- Pellegrini, D., Eliya, Y., Gavert, A., Code, J., & Van Spall, H. (2021). Social media in heart failure: A mixed-methods systematic review. Current Cardiology Reviews 17(2), 161-170. https://doi.org/10.2174/1573403X15666191210143657(CA) [10 pages]
- Code, J., Ralph, R. & Forde, K., (2020). Pandemic designs for the future: Perspectives of technology education teachers during COVID-19. Information and Learning Science, 121(5/6), 419-431. https://doi.org/10.1108/ILS-04-2020-0112 (FA) [13 pages]
- Roston, T., Bains, M., Code, J., & Virani, S. (2020). Heart failure in the young: Patient perspective and the lived experience. Canadian Journal of General Internal Medicine, 15(1), 36-39. https://doi.org/10.22374/cjgim.v15iSP1.418(CA) [4 pages; Journal max words: 4000]
- Code, J. (2020). Agency for learning: Intention, motivation, self-efficacy and self-regulation. Frontiers in Education, 5(19), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2020.00019 (FA) [15 pages + supplement]
- Behan, C. M., Meldrum, J. T., Pinel, B., & Code, J. (2020). The binding force: A practical model for building and maintaining the coach-athlete relationship in Canadian intercollegiate teams. International Journal of Contemporary Research and Review, 11(05), 20205–20226. https://doi.org/10.15520/ijcrr.v11i05.807 (CA) [22 pages]
- Behan, C. M., Meldrum, J. T., Pinel, B., & Code, J. (2020). Reciprocating coach-athlete relationship model (R-CARM): Trustworthiness for a useful tInternational Journal of Contemporary Research and Review, 11(05), 20227–20266. https://doi.org/10.15520/ijcrr.v11i05.808 (CA) [41 pages]
- Ralph, R., Code, J. & Petrina, S. (2019). Measuring theory of mind (ToM) with preschool-aged children: Storybooks and observations with iPads. International Journal of Early Years Education. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669760.2019.1685468 (CA) [18 pages]
- Code, J. (2019). I am the clinical trial. Journal of the American College of Cardiology: Heart Failure, 7(5), 439-441. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jchf.2018.12.019 (FA) [3 pages; Journal max words: 2000]
- Virani, S., Bains, M., Code, J., Ducharme, A., Harkness, K., Howlett, J., Sussex, B., & Zieroth, S. (2017). The need for heart failure advocacy in Canada. Canadian Journal of Cardiology, 33(11), 1450-1454.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2017.08.024 (SA) [5 pages; Journal max words: 2000]
- Code, J. & Zap, N. (2017). Assessment in immersive virtual environments: Cases for learning, of learning, and as learning. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 28(3), 235-248. https://www.learntechlib.org/primary/p/172803/(FA) [14 pages]
- Ross, E., Sakakibara, B., Mackay, M., Whitehurst, D., Singer, J., Toma, M., Corbett, K., Rutherford, K., Gheorghiu, B., Code, J., & Lear, S. (2017). The use of text messaging to improve the hospital-to-community transition in acute coronary syndrome patients (Txt2Prevent): Intervention development and pilot randomized controlled trial protocol. JMIR Research Protocols, 6(5), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.2196/resprot.6968 (CA) [11 pages]
- Code, J. & Hatzipanagos, S. (2016). Open badges in online learning environments: Peer feedback as an engagement intervention for promoting agency. Journal of Educational Multimedia & Hypermedia, 25(2), 126-142.https://www.learntechlib.org/primary/p/173261/ (FA) [16 pages]
- Code, J., Clarke-Midura, J., Zap, N. & Dede, C. (2013). The utility of using immersive virtual environments for the assessment of science inquiry learning. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 24(4), 371-396. https://www.learntechlib.org/primary/p/41534/ (FA) [26 pages]
- Elbert, J., Code, J. & Irvine, V. (2013). iPads on practicum: Perspective of a student-teacher. The Arbutus Review, 4(1), 1-18. https://doi.org/10.18357/tar41201312703 (SA) [18 pages]
- Irvine, V., Code, J. & Richards, L. (2013). Re-aligning higher education for the 21st-century learner through multi-access learning [Special issue]. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 9(2), 172-186.https://jolt.merlot.org/vol9no2/irvine_0613.pdf (SA) [15 pages]
- Siemens, G., Irvine, V. & Code, J. (2013). An academic perspective on an emerging technological and social trend [Special issue]. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 9(2), iii-vi. https://jolt.merlot.org/vol9no2/siemens_editorial_0613.pdf (SA) [4 pages]
- Hadwin, A. F., Nesbit, J. C., Jamieson-Noel, D., Code, J., & Winne, P. H. (2007). Examining trace data to explore self-regulated learning. Metacognition and Learning, 2(2-3), 107-124. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11409-007-9016-7 (CA) [18 pages]
- Nesbit, J. C., Winne, P. H., Jamieson-Noel, D., Code, J., Zhou, M., MacAllister, K., et al. (2006). Using cognitive tools to investigate how study activities co-vary with achievement goals. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 35(4), 339-358. https://doi.org/10.2190/H3W1-8321-1260-1443 (CA) [20 pages]
- Johnson, G. M., Howell, A. J., & Code, J. (2005). Online discussion and college student learning: Toward a model of influence. Technology, Pedagogy, and Education, 14(1), 61-75. https://doi.org/10.1080/14759390500200193 (SA) [17 pages]
- Ralph, R., Pennefather, P., Code, J. & Petrina, S. (2023). Too many apps to choose from: Using rubrics to select mobile apps for preschool [Reprint]. In Information Resources Management Association (Ed.), Research anthology on early childhood development and school transition in the digital era (pp. 277-295). IGI Publishing. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-6684-7468-6.ch014 (CA) [18 pages]
- Ralph, R., Pennefather, P., Code, J. & Petrina, S. (2019). Too many apps to choose from: Using rubrics to select mobile apps for preschool. In S. Papadakis & M. Kalogiannakis (Eds.) Mobile learning applications in early childhood education (pp. 20-38). IGI Publishing. https://doi.org/4018/978-1-7998-1486-3.ch002 (CA) [18 pages]
- Code, J. & Zap, N. (2014). Assessments for learning, of learning, and as learning in 3D immersive virtual environments. In T. Bastiens & G. Marks (Eds.), Education and information technology 2014: A selection of AACE award papers (pp. 209-219). AACE. (FA) [10 pages]
- Clarke-Midura, J., Code, J., Mayrath, M., Dede, C., & N. Zap (2012). Thinking outside the bubble: Virtual performance assessments for measuring inquiry learning. In M. Mayrath, J. Clarke-Midura, D. Robinson & G. Technology-based assessments for 21st-century skills: Theoretical and practical implications from modern research(pp. 125-147). Information Age Publishing. (SA) [22 pages]
- Clarke-Midura, J., Code, J., Zap, N. & Dede, C. (2012). Assessing science inquiry in the classroom: A case study of the virtual assessment project. In L. Lennex & K. Nettleton (Eds.), Cases on inquiry through instructional technology in math and science: Systemic approaches (pp. 138-164). IGI Publishing. http://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-4666-0068-3.ch006 (SA) [26 pages]
- Code, J., Clarke-Midura, J., Zap, N., & Dede, C. (2012). Virtual performance assessment in immersive virtual environments. In H. Wang (Ed.), Interactivity in e-learning: Case studies and frameworks (pp. 230-252). IGI Publishing. http://doi:10.4018/978-1-61350-441-3.ch011 (FA) [22 pages]
- Code, J., & Zaparyniuk, N. (2009). The emergence of agency in online social networks: Implications for education. In S. Hatzipanagos & S. Warburton (Eds.), Handbook of research on social software and developing community ontologies (pp. 102-118). IGI Publishing. http://doi:10.4018/978-1-60566-208-4.ch008 (FA) [14 pages]
- Code, J., & Zaparyniuk, N. (2009). Social identities, group formation, and analysis of online communities. In S. Hatzipanagos & S. Warburton (Eds.), Handbook of research on social software and developing community ontologies(pp. 86-101). IGI Publishing. http://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-60566-208-4.ch007 (FA) [16 pages]
- Code, J., Clarke-Midura, J., Zap, N., & Dede, C. (2012). Student perceptions of immersive virtual environments for the meaningful assessment of learning. In T. Bastien & G. Marks (Eds.), Education and information technology 2012: A selection of AACE award papers (pp. 185-194). AACE. (FA) [9 pages]
- Code, J. (2013). Agency and identity in social media. In S. Warburton & S. Hatzipanagos (Eds.), Digital identity and social media (pp. 37-57). IGI Publishing. http://doi:10.4018/978-1-4666-1915-9.ch004 (FA) [20 pages]
- Zaparyniuk, N., & Code, J. (2009). Self-regulated learning in video game environments: Implications for educational gaming. In R. Ferdig (Ed.), Handbook of research on effective electronic gaming in education (pp. 738-756). IGI Publishing. http://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-59904-808-6.ch042 (FA) [19 pages]
- Ross, E., Sakakibara, B., Mackay, M., Whitehurst, D., Singer, J., Toma, M., Corbett, K., Rutherford, K., Gheorghiu, B., Code, J., & Lear, S. (2022). User experiences with a pilot text messaging intervention aimed to support patients with acute coronary syndrome after discharge, Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 56(5/6). (pp. 529). https://doi.org/10.1093/abm/kaab058 (CA)
- Turgeon, R., Dosanjh, A., Code, J., Bains, M., & Virani, S. (2021). Patient educational needs and treatments preferences for heart failure medications. Canadian Journal of Cardiology, 37(10), S63-S64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2021.07.132 (CA)
- Pellegrini, D., Eliya, Y., Gavert, A., Code, J., & Van Spall, H. (2020). Social media in heart failure: A mixed-methods systematic review. Journal of American College of Cardiology, 75(11), 3536. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0735-1097(20)34163-2 (CA)
- Code, J., Forde, K., Petrina, S., Ralph, R., & Zhao, J. (2021). Designerly ways, means, and ends: From STEM to STEAM to STEAMD [Symposia]. In D. Anderson, M. Milner-Bolotin, R. Santos, & S. Petrina (Eds.), Proceedings of the 6th International STEM in Education Conference (STEM 2021).
- (pp. 435-437). The University of British Columbia. https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0402129
- Code, J., Forde, K., Ralph, R. & Zap, N. (2021). Assessment for learning in immersive and virtual environments – Evidence-centred game design in STEM. In D. Anderson, M. Milner-Bolotin, R. Santos, & S. Petrina (Eds.), Proceedings of the 6th International STEM in Education Conference (STEM 2021). (pp. 459-465). The University of British Columbia. https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0402129
- Code, J. & Zap, N. (2019). A preliminary exploration of the effects of personality and self-efficacy for online learning in higher education. In J. Theo Bastien (Ed.), Edmedia + Innovate Learning 2019 (pp. 1511-1517). AACE. (FA)
- Code, J. & Hatzipanagos, S. (2016). Open badges in online learning environments: Peer feedback as an engagement intervention for promoting agency. In C. Fulford & G. Veletsianos et al. (Eds.), World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications (EDMEDIA 2016) (pp. 1332–1342). AACE. (FA)
- Zap, N. & Code, J. (2016). Virtual and augmented reality as cognitive tools for learning. In C. Fulford & G. Veletsianos et al. (Eds.), World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications (EDMEDIA 2016) (pp. 1317–1324). AACE. (SA)
Agency and Learning in Immersive and Virtual Environments (ALIVE)
Description: As creative thinking, problem-solving and inquiry learning are primary goals of teaching and learning, immersive and virtual environments designed using principles relevant to solving authentic ill-structured problems are critical for lifelong learning and transfer to novel contexts. Further, on the axiom that ‘learners are agents’, it follows that an understanding of human agency is necessary to fully appreciate how learning occurs. Agency is an emergent capability manifested in a students’ ability to interact with personal, behavioural, environmental, and social factors in the learning context. Agency is inherent in students’ ability to regulate, control, and monitor their learning. Research suggests that agency mediates goal orientations, student perceptions of the learning environment, social identification, the learning strategies they use, and overall academic performance. Agency enables students’ decision-making around what and how something is learned. In other words, learner agency is a capacity of students to act and engage within the learning environment, ultimately enabling student voice and choice in their education. Building on our previous SSHRC-funded research using evidence-centred game design (ECGD), this project aims to examine learner agency and complex STEM inquiry reasoning by enhancing a novel evaluation framework built on the use of 3DIVEs as a formative assessment platform.
Algorithm Literacy and Teacher Education
Description: Internet algorithms are automated mathematical processes that use different types of data to make decisions and recommendations. Increasingly, algorithms shape nearly every aspect of our daily lives (Kitchin, 2017). For example, algorithms are used in medicine to predict the likelihood that individuals will develop certain diseases (Miotto et al., 2016), are used by some employers as a means of determining which job applicants should be contacted for an interview (Bogen, 2019), and have been used by law enforcement agencies to decide who to arrest (Hill, 2022). In education, algorithms have been used to determine teacher promotion and pay (Kantayya, 2020), predict student grades (Gkontzis et al., 2018), and assess student awards for higher education funding based on willingness to pay (Engler, 2021). Algorithms also have a profound but typically invisible impact on our daily lives, as nearly every action on the internet is shaped by algorithmic decision-making (Kitchen, 2017). According to Dogruel (2021), “algorithms filter the news we see, influence decisions about what we buy and at what price, determine the type of music we listen to or govern whom we interact within social media” (p. 68). Most significantly, big data and deep learning have allowed algorithms to engage in extreme personalization when filtering and making recommendations; thus, each of us is presented with our version of reality (Just & Latzer, 2017). That is not to say we are entirely at the mercy of algorithms; rather, “algorithms have to be considered as embedded in a complex ecosystem with shared agency between humans and software components that permanently shape each other” (Dogruel, 2021, p. 69.)
To exercise agency in the human-algorithm relationship, one must possess algorithm literacy (also called algorithmic literacy). Algorithmic literacy can be defined as awareness of algorithm use, knowledge about algorithms, ability to evaluate algorithms critically, and ability to apply coping behaviours when engaging with algorithmic systems (Dogruel et al., 2021). The body of scholarly literature concerning algorithm literacy is rapidly growing. A Google Scholar search conducted on April 19, 2022, using the search string (“algorithm literacy” OR “algorithmic literacy”) yielded 545 results, 430 of which have been published since the year 2018. As recent news coverage makes clear (e.g., Dragicevic, 2022; Hao, 2022), there is a crucial need for algorithm literacy in our daily lives. Through this SSHRC Explore Grant, we will undertake a systematic literature review with the goal of better understanding the present state of algorithm literacy research and synthesizing practical implications, with a focus on human agency in the human-algorithm relationship.
Beyond the Academy: Professional Agency and Learning in Virtual Contexts
Description: The global pandemic’s impact on the job market has increased the pressure on workers to build new skills with a renewed focus on lifelong learning in virtual contexts (OECD, 2020). Professional agency is needed to develop one’s work network and to renegotiate work-related identities during changing economic times (Biesta, 2010). The concept of agency has become widely used in learning research, especially as it relates to professional and workplace learning (Etalapelto et al., 2013). Agency is the capability of individuals to make choices and exert control over and give direction to one’s life (Biesta & Tedder, 2007; Martin, 2004). Through changing working life conditions, coping with transitions and managing amid trying times, people need to create subjectively meaningful careers (Etalapelto et al., 2013). In a recent study by Sannino, Engeström and Jokinen (2021), digital peer learning (DPL) through a community of practice (CoP; Lave & Wenger, 1991, 1998) was used as a means to facilitate transformative agency amongst homelessness practitioners (HP) in Finland. Sannino and colleagues found that DPL enabled HPs to recognize and elucidate conflicts, offer each other potential supportive resources, and establish essential connections, ultimately resulting in transformative action. Thus, HPs could cope with working life conditions amid conflict by using DPL to collectively solve problems through their CoP, transforming their professional agency in the process. Educating and empowering individuals to explore and develop their professional agency is a necessary response to the changing economy – made even more pressing because of the pandemic. Since universities and federal policy do not prioritize non-academic career preparation, post-doctoral research fellows (postdocs) may disregard the low likelihood of obtaining an academic job and lack relevant non-academic skills (Hayter & Parker, 2019). The ratio of Ph.D. holders to academic openings is far higher across most disciplines (Hancock, 2021). A recent study from the UK estimates that only 50% of Social Science and 45% of Arts and Humanities Ph.D. holders are in academic roles 3.5 years after graduation. PhDs and postdocs have faced, for at least 20 years, dwindling job prospects for tenure-track faculty employment (Hayter & Parker, 2019). Thus, there is a significant need to educate and empower recent PhDs and postdocs to develop professional agency beyond the academy.
Project page: https://alivelab.ca/project/beyond-the-academy/
Unbundled Learning: Agency in Online Social Learning Networks for Education and Support
Description: Social media enables identity expression, exploration, and experimentation; something innate to the human experience. Over the past two decades, the proliferation and use of online social networking in mainstream society has grown exponentially. In Canada, as of 2016, over 93% of the population is connected to the Internet with more than 60% using the social network site Facebook™; usage that is mirrored in both the United States and the United Kingdom (de Argaez, 2017). Research into the application of social networks such as Facebook™ within and across disciplines reflects this mainstream growth. For example, a search of the Web of Science database using the keyword “social network” reveals that the number of articles on the topic has increased 600% over the last decade. With the proliferation of social networks enabled by the Internet, understanding the influence of powerful others in the expression of individual agency is of critical importance – especially when it comes to the education and social support of vulnerable populations such as those with chronic diseases including heart failure. Heart failure (HF) is one of the most common chronic conditions and reasons for hospitalizations in the world. HF occurs after the heart becomes damaged or weakened by an underlying cause, for example a virus or heart attack, and is a chronic progressive disease with no known cure. As the majority of time patients spend is outside formal clinical contexts, there is an opportunity to research how social media affects the education and support individuals with HF seek. To date, the majority of literature in the chronic disease spectrum focuses on provider or institutionally-driven education and support communities (Toma et al., 2014) and there is very little research on the HF patient use of social media platforms for facilitating education and social support (Widmer et al., 2017)
Project page: https://alivelab.ca/project/unbundled-learning/
Description: The Assessment for Learning in Immersive Virtual Environments (ALIVE) project is a research program that examines how 3DIVEs enable student success through the provision of feedback while students are immersed in a real-world science inquiry investigation (See Figures 1 & 2), addressing one of SSHRCs future challenges by examining new ways of learning and identifying roles emerging and disruptive technologies play in learning for individuals. This project builds upon our previous research in immersive technologies for the summative assessment of science inquiry learning conducted at Harvard University (Code et al., 2011a, 2011b, 2011c, 2011d, 2012, 2013; Clarke-Midura et al., 2011a, 2011b, 2011c, 2011d, 2012a, 2012b) and our research in the areas of learner agency, self-efficacy, and self-regulated learning in video game environments (Code, 2010, 2013; Code & Zaparyniuk, 2010, 2011; Code & Zap, 2011, 2013, submitted; Zaparyniuk & Code, 2009; Zaparyniuk, 2007a, 2007b, 2015). This project will integrate and extend this work by exploring the use of 3DIVEs as a means to provide feedback through the formative assessment of inquiry reasoning in the context of middle school life science. Key research questions that will guide this two-year project investigates ways that the 3DIVE technology and log-file data, designed around a model of science inquiry, enables individual students to utilize feedback, and whether and how this affects their agency for learning (goal setting, motivation, self-regulation, and self-efficacy), and academic achievement.
Project page: https://alivelab.ca/project/alive-investigator/
EDCP 450/451/452 Inquiry Seminar in Design and Technology Education
Description: Inquiry is understood as a deliberate, sustained and systematic process—beyond the everyday reflection required in teaching. Professionals explore what they do and how they do it; it involves sharing one’s inquiries with colleagues. It involves classroom teachers, individually and collectively, in a cycle of action, reflection, sharing and adaptation. Teachers are given opportunities for practice, and to address challenges and issues that arise through discussion and reflection, try out new or revised practices, and evaluate the results. The cycle then begins anew based on the outcomes, responses, and possibilities emerging from the inquiry.
EDCP 474 Digital Media in Education: Design and Pedagogy
Description: Design and pedagogy in Digital Media require specialized knowledge, which include digital design, graphic design, instructional design, and coding or computational thinking. First, there is a challenge of skills necessary to teach and manage advanced courses in media and technology, including, in the schools, computer-aided design (CAD), coding and computer science, digital animation, game design, graphic technology, modelling, video, and visualization. Second, there is the challenge of pedagogy to inspire students beyond functional and technical aspects of digital media. This course provides an in-depth experience for students and teachers who teach, or want to teach, digital media. It provides a background for designing digital media along with an overview of principles and processes of coding, instructional design (ID), graphic design, and technology. Students are given ample opportunity to assess and apply principles of ID through the design of digital learning resources or systems and learning objects. The history, philosophy, and criticism of digital media are addressed.
EDCP 500 Research Methods in Education
Description: This course is designed for graduate students in the first year of their degree program. It acknowledges the importance of excellence in research design but is predicated on the assumption that problem definition should determine research design – consistent with the diversity of researchable problems. Research is contextualized in educational settings – early childhood, primary, middle, secondary, adult and vocational education and training. The focus, therefore, is on research for and of education. The course will introduce research issues and techniques to assist students in selecting research methods and strategies for more intensive studies. The course will also assist students to select methods to be used in an immediate application and enable them to read research reports critically.
EDCP 570 Critical Thinking in the Age of Social Media
Description: Social media and the Internet are not neutral. Proponents of social media exude its advantages through the democratization of knowledge. Others argue that social media is irreparably tearing the fabric of society apart. This course will explore arguments around social media and survey its impacts on education, psychology, society and culture. Students will be asked to evaluate disparate themes related to social media through a critical examination of the research literature.
EDCP 571 History of Media and Technology in Education
Description: This course will explore issues such as how, why, and to what degree media and technology have been incorporated into, or changed by, education over time. Students will explore arguments that media and technology have been an imposition on humanistic curriculum practices, are the principle means of progress in administration, and that the separation of curriculum from instruction via media and technology subsequently displace teaching and learning. Taking a comparative historical approach, this course is designed from a basis that media and technology education are not merely tools; educational premises are neither fully durable nor pliable, and actors or agents of education are not merely humans.