Music media and related technologies, the design and function of arts-based educational research and creative analytical practices (especially in artography and autoethnography)
Peter Gouzouasis is an Professor of Music Education in the Department of Curriculum and Pedagogy at The University of British Columbia. Dr. Gouzouasis is a lifelong learner of music and media, and considers himself a serious student of guitar and other fretted instruments and performance in jazz, North American folk, Celtic, and Greek music contexts.
Over the past 24 years, my work at UBC has evolved through three, connective strands: (1) teaching and learning in music (including digital media and technologies), (2) developing an understanding of learning in and through the Arts and general curriculum using Arts Based Educational Research methods and digital technologies, and (3) an organicist, relational, developmental perspective of lifelong learning. These strands, or themes, have shaped my current scholarship as distinctive, innovative, and expanding the methodological and pedagogical boundaries of the field of music education. For me, pedagogy is the art of both teaching and learning, informed by theory and praxis.
1) The first strand of my work is rooted in research with young children and adolescents. I studied various aspects of music aptitude and achievement since graduate work in 1982. Under the tutelage of Edwin Gordon (from 1959-1990 the most published researcher in the field of music education), I emerged as one of the early researchers in North America who helped revive interest in the development of new teaching techniques and research strategies in early childhood music education.
This theme also involves traditional and emerging forms of media. Studies on the use of video conferencing technology in the delivery of music instruction for children were the first such published papers on the topic. They were based on the premise of the lack of interaction and lack of music instruction in passive television viewing habits of young children. That work revealed early insights into the efficacy of new forms of emerging media in the delivery of music instruction in distance education contexts.
The examination of multimedia constructions of children was fueled by my expertise in computer literacy through arts applications. Considering the mechanistic mainstream of “technology education,” it is a unique approach that acknowledges the contributions of artists and the arts in the development of hardware and content in all forms of traditional and contemporary media. My expertise was recognized internationally by leading software developers (e.g., Macromedia), universities in North America and Australia, practitioners, and small corporations. That early work prepared me to develop the first on-line interactive teaching materials using WebCT (“The Interactive Guitar”) as well as take a leading role in The University of British Columbia’s teacher education program through the formation of the Fine Arts and Media in Education (FAME) cohort. FAME was the first group of pre-service teachers in North America to work in a ubiquitous, 24/7 learning and teaching environment with wireless laptops in both university and public school classroom settings. It led to my involvement as a principal collaborator in a nation-wide SSHRC-INE grant to support that research program and the publication of leading edge research (2001 through 2006). One of the most fascinating aspects of this work is that my collaboration with North Vancouver School District 44 led me to develop one of the most progressive school plans in rich media applications in education in Canada.
2) While arts-based educational research is a relatively nascent form of inquiry, work from my master’s thesis (completed in 1987) enabled me to write papers in this research form as early as 1995. My interest in Marshall McLuhan’s notions of media coincides with five years as the music programming director of what became the most listened to American Public Radio (APR) jazz radio station in North America (JAZZ90/WRTI) in the RTF Department at Temple University. That knowledge provided me with practical insights to the inner workings of the radio and records industry that are documented in my publications (1995, 1996, 2000, 2005, 2011). However, one of the problems faced by arts educators is in the dilemma we face in reconciling practice with research. A number of my latest writings (2002, 2005, 2006, 2008, 2009, 2013) address the struggles of “musician performer as researcher” and provides a rationale for the consideration of artist researchers. Other focuses in arts-based educational research are rooted in the perspectives as the arts as technè, foundational to the content of all forms of new digital media, and historical-sociological issues surrounding the evolution of arts media over the past century (2000, 2001, 2003, 2004). Very few music educators are involved in arts-based educational research. Moreover, few research teams have been assembled across the arts to do work in this field. Independent and collaborative projects with colleagues at UBC in the acquisition of grant funding (SSHRC 2004, 2008; and UBC-Hampton), international conference presentations, and emerging publications now place UBC at the forefront of research in arts-based educational research.
3) In 2007, I conducted a landmark, longitudinal study that examines factors in arts participation and academic achievement of British Columbia grade 12 students. The overall objective of this research is to learn about various factors, relationships and differences in academic, social and arts (music, visual art, drama & dance) achievement of all students across BC from 2001-2004. This research uses quantitative methods to analyse large data sets (n=60,000 per year) to determine the predictive relationships and differences – between academic achievement in language, mathematics, social studies and science – of students who achieve highly in and participate in arts programs and those who have no involvement with the arts in secondary school.
I have also published additional descriptive and qualitative research to examine secondary students in music learning settings in leading international music education journals (2008-2012, and work in review). This phase of my research will include extended, nuanced, multivariate, longitudinal replications of the 2007 study, and will continue for the next three years as part of my recently funded SSHRC Insight grant, What matters most: Music making of adolescents in the 21st century.
More recently, a number of papers that use autoethnography in music learning and teaching contents have been published, are in press, and are in review. You can access some of Peter’s work at Academia.edu.
In Fall 2014, I’m teaching a heavily qualitative version of EDUC 500 (Research Methods in Education) with the off-campus Creativity in Teaching and Learning M.Ed. cohort and a very progressive version of EDCP 505 (Review of Research in Music Education) with our on campus music education graduate cohort.
In July 2011 Dr. Gouzouasis was a Distinguished Lecturer at Beijing Normal University in The PRC, where he performed lectures and demonstrations with graduate and undergraduate students, as well as preschool children, in early childhood music education.
Refereed conference papers
Gouzouasis, P. (2014). Autoethnography as Creative Analytical Practice. Paper presented as part of the symposium Disrupting by Imagining: Rethinking Early Childhood Research, at the 2014 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA). Philadelphia, USA.
Gouzouasis, P. (2014). Autoethnography as arts based educational research: A pedagogical tale from the piano studio. Paper presented at the 2014 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA). Philadelphia, USA.
Gouzouasis, P. (2014). What matters most: The impact of arts achievement and participation on the academic achievement of children and adolescents. Paper presented at the 2014 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA). Philadelphia, USA.
Gouzouasis, P. (2014). What matters most: The use of autoethnography in music education research. Paper presented at the Paper presented at the 22nd European Association for Music in School conference (EAS). Nicosia, Cyprus.
Gouzouasis, P. (2014). What matters most: The impact of music and visual arts achievement and participation on academic achievement of children and adolescents. Paper presented at the 22nd European Association for Music in School conference (EAS). Nicosia, Cyprus.
Gouzouasis, P. & Regier, C. (in press). Adolescent love and relationships: A songwriting teacher’s autoethnography. Journal of Artistic & Creative Education. 24 page ms. Accepted April 2014.
Gouzouasis, P. & Ryu. J. Y. (2014). The use of story in early childhood music education research: A pedagogical tale from the piano studio. Music Education Research. 34 page ms. Accepted Fall 2014.
Gouzouasis, P., Bakan, D., Ryu, J. Y., Ballam, H., Murphy, D., Ihnatovych, D., Virag, Z. & Yanko, M. (2014). Where do teachers and learners stand in music education research? A multi-voiced call for a new ethos of music education research. International Journal of Education & the Arts, 15. Available at http://www.ijea.org/v15n15/index.html
Gouzouasis, P., Irwin, R. L., Gordon, C. & Miles, E. (2013). Commitments to a community of artistic inquiry: Becoming pedagogical through a/r/tography in teacher education. International Journal of Education & the Arts,14(1). Available at http://www.ijea.org/v14n1/v14n1.pdf
Gouzouasis, P., & Henderson, A. (2012).Secondary band student perspectives on musical and educational outcomes from participation in band festivals. Music Education Research, 14(4), 479-498.
Leggo, C., Sinner, A. E., Irwin, R. L., Pantaleo, K., Gouzouasis, P. & Grauer, K. (2010). Lingering in liminal spaces: a/r/tography as living inquiry in a language arts class. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 23 (1), 1–18.
Predergast, M., Gouzouasis, P., Leggo, C. & Irwin, R. (2009). A Haiku suite: The importance of music making in the lives of secondary students. Music Education Research, 11 (3), 303-317.
Gouzouasis, P. & Lee, K. V. (2009). The cage: stuff, tunes, and tales. Reflective Practice, 10 (2), 173-178.
Ricketts, K., Gouzouasis, P., Irwin, R., Grauer, K. & Leggo, C. (2008). Muffled and silenced. Exploring issues in cultural diversity through dance. NJ: The Journal of Drama Australia, 31 (2), 21-34.
Weibe, S., Irwin, R., Leggo, C., Gouzouasis, P., Grauer, K., & Sameshima, P. (2008). Re-imagining arts integration: Rhizomatic relations of the everyday. Journal of Educational Thought, 41 (3), 263-280.
Gouzouasis, P. (2008). Music research in an a/r/tographic tonality. Journal of the Canadian Association for Curriculum Studies, 5 (2), 33-58. Available through http://www.google.ca/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&ved=0CCUQFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fpi.library.yorku.ca%2Fojs%2Findex.php%2Fjcacs%2Farticle%2Fdownload%2F17042%2F15842&ei=arRbVMz1L4jpoATqmIDwDA&usg=AFQjCNHxgk5SlUchEnWT1h2xodMJMAuMJg&sig2=SDT4SHwbfkZnUFT157o-0Q&bvm=bv.78677474,d.cGU
Gouzouasis, P., Henrey, J., & Belliveau, G. (2008). Turning points: A transitional story of grade seven students’ participation in high school band programs. Music Education Research, 10 (1), 75-90.
Gouzouasis, P., Guhn, M., & Kishor, N. (2007). The predictive relationship between achievement in music and achievement in core grade twelve academic subjects. Music Education Research,9 (1), 81-92.
Sinner, A., Leggo, C., Irwin, R., Gouzouasis, P. & Grauer, K. (2007). Arts-based educational research dissertations: Reviewing the practices of new scholars. The Canadian Journal of Education, 29 (4), 123-127.
Gouzouasis, P. (2006). Arts-based technology in education: Is there room for the arts at the desktop? Arts Education Policy Review, 107 (5), 3-9.
Gouzouasis, P. (2006). A/r/t/ography in music research: A reunification of musician, researcher, and teacher. Arts and Learning Journal, 22 (1), 23-42.
Gouzouasis, P. & LaMonde, A. M. (2005, July 3). The use of tetrads in the analysis of arts-based media. International Journal of Education & the Arts, 6 (4). Retrieved July 4, 2005 from http://ijea.asu.edu/v6n4/.
Gouzouasis, P. (2005, July 27). Fluency in general music and arts technologies: Is the future of music a garage band mentality? Action, Criticism and Theory for Music Education, 4 (2). Retrieved July 30, 2005 from http://mas.siue.edu/ACT/index.html
Gouzouasis, P. & LaMonde, A. (2004). The classroom use of portable and wireless technologies. International Journal of Learning, 11, 186-194.
Gouzouasis, P. & Goble, J. S. (2003). Contemporary perspectives on music, mass media, and culture. Canadian Music Educator,45 (2), 39-40.
Gouzouasis, P. & Lee, K. V. (2002). Do you hear what I hear? Musicians composing the truth. Teacher Education Quarterly, 29 (4), 125-141.
Gouzouasis, P. (2001). The role of the fine arts in new media and Canadian education for the 21st century. Education Canada, 41 (2), 20-23.
Gouzouasis, P. (2001). The effects of mass media on music and the music industry in the 20th century. Music and Society, 1 (1) http://mas.siue.edu.
Gouzouasis, P. (1996). Organicism and music media. Canadian Music Educator, 37 (3), 17-22.
Gouzouasis, P. (1995). Music as a medium: What’s the message? Canadian Music Educator, 36 (3), 45-53.
Gouzouasis, P. (1995). Multimedia constructions of children: An exploratory study. Journal of Computing in Childhood Education,6 (2), 33-38.
Taggart, C. & Gouzouasis, P. (1995). The music learning and language learning metaphor: An organismic perspective. Update: Applications of Research in Music Education,13 (2), 9-13.
Gouzouasis, P. (1994). A developmental model of music literacy. Research Forum,12 (Spring), 21-24.
Gouzouasis, P. (1993). Music aptitude: A comparison of the music abilities of kindergarten children of various ethnic backgrounds. The Quarterly Journal of Music Teaching and Learning,4 (2), 70-76.
Gouzouasis, P. (1993). The validity of the use of Primary Measures of Music Audiation for Canadian kindergarten children of different cultural backgrounds. Canadian Music Educator Journal of Research,34 (5), 31-34.
Gouzouasis, P. (1992). An organismic model of music learning for young children. Update: Applications of Research in Music Education, 11 (1), 13-18.
Gouzouasis, P. (1992). The comparative effects of two tonal pattern systems and two rhythm pattern systems for learning to play the guitar. The Quarterly Journal of Music Teaching and Learning, 3 (4), 10-18.
Gouzouasis, P. (1991). A progressive developmental approach to the music education of preschool children. Canadian Music Educator, 32 (3), 45-53.
Gouzouasis, P. (2014). What matters most: Using contemporary research to support music education policies in schools (a performative autoethnography). In P. Gouzouasis (Ed.), Policy and media in and for a diverse global community.Proceedings of the Commission on Music Policy: Culture, Education, and Media of the International Society for Music Education (pp. 60-71). Natal, Brazil.
Gouzouasis, P. (2013).Toward an ethos in music education: An (im)possibility. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference for Research in Music Education, Exeter, England, April 2013. Retrieved May 2013 from http://socialsciences.exeter.ac.uk/media/universityofexeter/collegeofsocialsciencesandinternationalstudies/education/research/rime/RIME_Abstracts&Summaries_Final.pdf
Gouzouasis, P. & Bakan, D. (2012). The development of Canadian broadcasting regulations in the 20th century and their impact on Canadian culture. In S. Goble & T. Imada (Eds.), Cultural inclusiveness and transparency of purpose in contemporary music education: The influence of cultural, educational, and media policies. Proceedings of the Commission on Music Policy: Culture, Education, and Media of the International Society for Music Education (pp. 43-49). Athens, Greece.
Gouzouasis, P. & Irwin, R. (2011). Becoming pedagogical through a/r/tography in teacher education. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference for Research in Music Education. Exeter, England, April 2011. Retrieved June 2011 from education.exeter.ac.uk/download.php?id=17121
Gouzouasis, P. & Henderson, A. (2011). Secondary band student perspectives on band festivals. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference for Research in Music Education. Exeter, England, April 2011. Retrieved June 2011 from education.exeter.ac.uk/download.php?id=17121
Gouzouasis, P., Grauer, K., Leggo, C. & Springgay, S. (2006). Investigating Curriculum Integration, the Arts and Diverse Learning Environments. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Congress on Arts Education, Lisbon, Portugal. Retrieved February 7, 2007 from UNESCO.org
Gouzouasis, P. (2003). The FAME Project: New pedagogies and praxis for teachers and students in the 21st century. From proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Technology in Teaching & Learning in Higher Education. (C. Spirou, ed.), 83-88.
Gouzouasis, P. (2002). The FAME Project: New media fluency through arts integration. From proceedings of the International Society for Music Education, Research Commission on Mass Media, Music and Culture, Helsinki, Finland (S. Helms, ed.). 66-86.
Gouzouasis, P. (2001). The internet music instruction project: Music achievement, technology, and motivation issues in distributive computer-mediated interactive instruction environments. From proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Technology in Teaching & Learning in Higher Education. (C. Spirou, ed.), 125-133.
Gouzouasis, P. & Green, B. (1997). The internet guitar project: Gender, music ability, and music achievement issues in distributive computer-mediated interactive instruction. From proceedings of ED-MEDIA 97–World conference on educational multimedia and hypermedia. Association for the Advancement of Computers in Education. CD-Rom, 180-196.
Gouzouasis, P. (1994). Video conferencing with preschool children: The efficacy of mass communications media in music instruction. From proceedings of ED-MEDIA 94—World conference on educational multimedia and hypermedia. Association for the Advancement of Computers in Education, 229-234.
Gouzouasis, P., Walker, D., & Burtenshaw, L. (1994). Distance education: Interactive video conferencing in music instruction. From proceedings of ED-MEDIA 94—World conference on educational multimedia and hypermedia. Association for the Advancement of Computers in Education, 730.
Gouzouasis, P. (1998). Understanding acoustic media: The extensions of music. The BC Music Educator, 41 (1), 15-20.
Gouzouasis, P. (1998). Thoughts on thoughts: Are you thinking musically or just thinking about it? The BC Music Educator, 41 (2), 7-13.
Gouzouasis, P. (1997). The arts and new media: New frontiers in integration. British Columbia Music Educator, 40 (2), 34-36.
Gouzouasis, P. (1994). Music assessment practices in British Columbia. British Columbia Music Educator, 37 (1), 50-53.
Gouzouasis, P. (1994). To audiate or not to audiate: Is there a question? British Columbia Music Educator, 37 (1), 64-69.
Gouzouasis, P. (1993). There’s a guitar in my instrumentarium. British Columbia Music Educator.35 (2), 16-19.
A Baroque concerto: An a/r/tographical interplay of voices researching education and the arts. This presentation and paper explores the significance of a/r/tography in educational inquiry and practice. With Rita Irwin, Kit Grauer, Sylvia Kind, and Carl Leggo (Presented at the American Education Research Association Conference, 2005). The performance may be found at http://m1.cust.educ.ubc.ca:16080/Artography/
Gouzouasis, P. (2011). Pedagogy in a new tonality: Teacher inquiries on creative tactics, strategies, graphics organizers and visual journals in the K-12 classroom. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers BV.
Springgay, S., Irwin, R. L., Gouzouasis, P. & Leggo, C. (2007). Being with a/r/t/ography. Rotterdam: SensePublishers BV.
Gouzouasis, P. (in press). Permission … permission. In (J. White, Ed.), Permission: The impact of Laurel Richardson’s work. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers BV.
Gouzouasis, P. & Leggo, C. (in review). Performing music and poetry: A pedagogy of listening. In (C. Hall & A. Harris, Eds.), Arts based education research: New methods, new methodologies. New York: Springer. (Accepted September 2013, 33 page ms with 5 audio recordings in mp3 format).
Sinner, A., Leggo, C., Irwin, R. L., Gouzouasis, P., & Grauer, K. (2013). Analisando as praticas de novos academicos: Teses que usam metodologias de pesquisa educacional badeada em arte. In B. Dias & R. L. Irwin (Eds.), Pesquisa educacional baseada em arte: A/r/tografia (pp. 99-124). Santa Maria, RS, Brasil: EditoraUFSM.
Sinner, A., Lymburner, J., Grauer, K., Irwin, R., Leggo, C., & Gouzouasis, P. (2012). Julie’s story: Letters from a teacher who dares to teach art. In L. Campbell & S. Simmons (Eds.), The heart of art education: Essays on holistic human development and integration (pp. 253-265). Reston, VA: National Art Education Association.
Gouzouasis, P. (2011). Toccata on becoming arts based teacher researchers. In Gouzouasis, P. (Ed.), Pedagogy in a new tonality: Teacher inquiries on creative tactics, strategies, graphics organizers and visual journals in the K-12 classroom. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers BV.
Gouzouasis, P. (2009). Developmental recapitulations in a/r/tography. Artografia: Pedagogia e metodologia em artes. Eds. B. Dias & R. Irwin. Brasilia: Universidad de Brasilia Press.
Gouzouasis, P. (2008). Toccata on assessment, validity, and interpretation. Being with a/r/t/ography. Eds. Springgay, S., Irwin, R. L., Gouzouasis, P. & Leggo, C., 219-230. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
Lee, K. V. & Gouzouasis, P. (2008). Out of the cage. The authentic dissertation:Alternative ways of knowing research and representation. Don Four Arrows Jacobs (Ed.), 149-155. London: RoutledgeFalmer.
Gouzouasis, P., LaMonde, A. M. & Guhn, M. (2007). The Fine Arts and Media in Education Project: The integration of creative arts-based activities, wireless technologies, and constructivist teaching practices in practicum classrooms. Music education in Canada: What is the state of the art? Eds. Beynon, C.A. & Veblen, K. K. with de Alwis, U., Horsley, S. and Heywood, A. London, ON: Althouse Press of University of Western Ontario. Also available online (retrieved November 20, 2007) at http://coalitionformusiced.ca/html/sec4-advocacy/ebook/
Gouzouasis, P. & Lee, K. V. (2007). Sticky Knot Danish. Arts-informed Inquiry Series: Creating
Scholartistry: Imagining the Arts-informed Thesis or Dissertation. Eds. J. G. Knowles, A. L. Cole, L. Neilsen & S. Promislow. Halifax, NS: Backalong Books.
Gouzouasis, P. & B. Leigh. (2003). Shall we dance? Researching the way we match student teachers with school advisors. Teacher Inquiry: Living the research in everyday practice. Eds. T. Clarke & G. Erickson, 38-47. London: RoutledgeFalmer.
Goelman, H., Andersen, C. J., Anderson, J., Gouzouasis, P., Kendrick, M., Kindler, A., Porath, M., & J. Koh. (2003). Early childhood education. The Comprehensive Handbook of Psychology, Volume VII: Educational Psychology. Eds. W. Reynolds & G. Miller, 285-331. New York: Wiley & Sons.
Gouzouasis, P. (2000). Understanding Music Media: Digital (re)genesis or meltdown in the 21st century. Looking Forward: Challenges to Canadian Music Education. Eds. B. Hanley and B. A. Roberts, 225-250. Victoria, BC: CMEA Publications.